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Sesame Package of Practice

Varieties

The recommended varieties and their characteristics are as follows:

Variety Duration (days) Oil content (%) Seed colour Seed yield (q/ha) Remarks
Uma 70-75 53 Pale white 10.00 Capsules compactly arranged, escape shattering
Usha 80-85 49 Bright biscuit 12.00 Resistant to diseases and pests
Nirmala 75-80 50 White 10.00 Resistant to bacterial diseases
Prachi 80-85 48 Black 12.00 Resistant to major pest & diseases
Vinayak 85-90 48 Reddish 6.00 Glabrous, resistant to stem rot
Kanaka 80-85 47 Biscuit 8.00 Pods pubescent
Kalika 80-85 49 Brown 8.00 Resistant to leaf spot

Land preparation

Sesame is grown as a rainfed crop on high lands and as a pre-rabi crop after early rice/jute/pulses. Well drained soils are suitable for growing sesame. Prepare the land to fine tilth. Apply compost or FYM @ 5 t/ha at final land preparation.

Seed treatment & Plant protection

Refer Annexure-III, IV & V.

Sowing

Seeds are small and should be sown shallow within a depth of 2 cm. Deep sowing may affect germination. Use a seed rate of 7 kg/ha in case of drilling in lines. Mix the seeds with sand when the crop is sown broadcast to ensure uniform sowing. Sow in lines 30 cm apart and thin plants to 10 cm between plants. Line sowing permits easy interculture and weed control. In line sown crop the plants come up uniformly. Sow the kharif crop with the onset of monsoon and pre rabi crop in September.

Fertilizer use

Sesame is an exhaustive crop and responds to fertilizers. Recommended fertilizer dose is 30-20-20 kg N-P2O5-K2O/ha. Apply full P2O5 and K2O and half of nitrogen as basal and the remaining nitrogen at first hoeing and weeding.

Interculture

First hoeing, weeding and thinning should be done at I5 days stage. Thinning should be done to keep the plants about 10 cm apart.

Harvesting

Harvest the crop when the plants start yellowing and drying of capsules commence. Harvest the plants and stack them for a week to allow the seeds in the upper capsules to ripen. Dry the plants keeping the plant tip towards the sun so that seeds do not drop from capsules. Threshing may be done after 3-4 days of drying.

IMPACT POINTS

1.Use of seeds from phyllody free crop
2.Line sowing, early weeding and thinning
3.Use of moderate dose of fertilizer