After a good rainfall in Monsoon Season in India, it is time for farmers to get their field ready for growing Rabi crops in the upcoming winter season. The Rabi crop season starts from October/November and ends in the arrival of Spring season i.e mid February to mid April. Their are a variety of Rabi crops that can be considered for farming which includes but is not limited to wheat, barley, oats (cereals), chickpea/gram (pulses), linseed, mustard (oilseeds) etc.
Below are the steps required in growing wheat crop, right from the sowing till the harvesting process. Following good management practice we can easily procure 4 to 5 tons of wheat grain per Hectare of land.
Following are the suitable varieties of wheat which can be obtained in different sowing period of wheat seeds.
Sowing time : Suitable varieties :
Timely sown ( November 15 – 30) HD 2824, HD 2733, PBW 343, PBW 443, HUW 468, K 9107, HP 1761, HP 1731, Sonalika
Late sown (December 1 – 25) HW 2045, DBW 14, NW 2036, HD 2643, NW 1014, HP 1744, HP 1633 (Sonali), Sonalika
Very Late ( Dec. 26 to January 7) Raj 3765, PBW 373
Lets start from the very initial phase of our wheat farming which is Field Preparation :
Divide the field into small basins of convenient size (5 x 3 meter) for controlled irrigation. Excess irrigation is harmful for wheat. Therefore, controlled irrigation by dividing the field into subplots is essential for getting high yield. Apply all the farm yard manure (5t/ha) at final land preparation.
After a proper Field Preparation lets move the other most important phase i.e. Seed treatment and sowing
Seed treatment protects the crop from seed borne diseases like loose smut, helminthosporium leaf spot and alternaria blight. For loose smut, soak seeds in water for 5 to 6 hours and dry in hot sun for 4 to 5 hours in a very thin layer. Treat each kg of seeds with 1.5 g of vitavax power thoroughly. Only quality seeds with more than 80% germination be used for sowing. Seed treatment drum should be used for treating the seeds before sowing. The second week of November is the optimum time for sowing wheat
While sowing seeds, proper Seed rate and spacing should be considered. Use 125 kg seed/ha for normal sowing and 150 kg/ha if sown late in December. Sow the seeds in lines 20 cm apart for inland districts and at 15 cm apart for coastal districts and late sowing under both the situations. Line sowing facilitates weeding, maintain adequate plant population and gives higher yield. Sow the seeds at a depth not exceeding 5 cm in moist soil by seed drill or behind the plough and compact soil by laddering.
Apply fertilizer on the basis of soil test recommendation.
Now lets come to the most awaited part of the wheat farming which is Harvesting :
Flowering takes place between 45-65 days. Thereafter it takes another 45 days for wheat to mature and be ready for harvesting. When the plants are completely yellow and the grains dry up and become hard, wheat will be ready for harvest. One test is to bend the neck of the earhead and if snaps, then wheat is ready for harvesting. Another test is to take a grain and bite it and if it breaks with a cracking sound then the crop is ready for harvest. Wheat thresher should be used for threshing and cleaning of wheat which reduces the cost of threshing and increases the quality of bhusa.
Do check out the video below to know more :